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ACS CodeYearStrandTitleDescriptor
ACSSU017 1 Biological Sciences Living Things Living things have a variety of external features
ACSSU019 1 Earth and Space Sciences Weather and Climate Observable changes occur in the sky and landscape
ACSSU020 1 Physical Sciences Light and Sound Light and sound are produced by a range of sources and can be sensed
ACSSU211 1 Biological Sciences Animal Survival Living things live in different places where their needs are met
ACSSU184 10 Biological Sciences DNA The transmission of heritable characteristics from one generation to the next involves DNA and genes
ACSSU185 10 Biological Sciences Evolution The theory of evolution by natural selection explains the diversity of living things and is supported by a range of scientific evidence
ACSSU186 10 Chemical Sciences Periodic table The atomic structure and properties of elements are used to organise them in the Periodic Table
ACSSU187 10 Chemical Sciences Chemical Reactions Different types of chemical reactions are used to produce a range of products and can occur at different rates
ACSSU188 10 Earth and Space Sciences Universe The universe contains features including galaxies, stars and solar systems and the Big Bang theory can be used to explain the origin the universe
ACSSU189 10 Earth and Space Sciences Global Systems Global systems, including the carbon cycle, rely on interactions involving the biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere
ACSSU190 10 Physical Sciences Energy Conservation Energy conservation in a system can be explained by describing energy transfers and transformations
ACSSU229 10 Physical Sciences Forces and Motion The motion of objects can be described and predicted using the laws of physics
ACSBL019 11 Biodiversity and the interconnectedness of life Describing biodiversity Ecosystems are diverse, composed of varied habitats and can be described in terms of their component species, species interactions and the abiotic factors that make up the environment
ACSBL021 11 Biodiversity and the interconnectedness of life Describing biodiversity In addition to biotic factors, abiotic factors including climate and substrate can be used to and classify environments
ACSBL029 11 Biodiversity and the interconnectedness of life Ecosystem dynamics Models of ecosystem interactions (for example, food webs, successional models) can be used to predict the impact of change and are based on interpretation of and extrapolation from sample data (for example, data derived from ecosystem surveying techniques
ACSBL045 11 Cells and multicellular organism Cells as the basis of life The cell membrane separates the cell from its surroundings and controls the exchange of materials, including gases, nutrients and wastes, between the cell and its environment
ACSBL046 11 Cells and multicellular organism Cells as the basis of life Movement of materials across membranes occurs via diffusion, osmosis, active transport and/or endocytosis
ACSBL047 11 Cells and multicellular organism Cells as the basis of life Factors that affect exchange of materials across membranes include the surface-area-to-volume ratio of the cell, concentration gradients, and the physical and chemical nature of the materials being exchanged
ACSCH016 11 Chemical fundamentals Properties and structure of atoms Trends in the observable properties of elements are evident in periods and groups in the periodic table
ACSCH018 11 Chemical fundamentals Properties and structure of atoms Atoms can be modelled as a nucleus surrounded by electrons in distinct energy levels, held together by electrostatic forces of attraction between the nucleus and electrons; atoms can be represented using electron shell diagrams (all electron shells or val
ACSCH019 11 Chemical fundamentals Properties and structure of atoms Flame tests and atomic absorption spectroscopy are analytical techniques that can be used to identify elements; these methods rely on electron transfer between atomic energy levels
ACSCH025 11 Chemical fundamentals Properties and structure of materials Materials are either pure substances with distinct measurable properties (for example, melting and boiling point, reactivity, strength, density) or mixtures with properties dependent on the identity and relative amounts of the substances that make up the
ACSCH026 11 Chemical fundamentals Properties and structure of materials Differences in the properties of substances in a mixture, such as particle size, solubility, magnetism, density, electrostatic attraction, melting point and boiling point, can be used to separate them
ACSCH030 11 Chemical fundamentals Properties and structure of materials Ions are atoms or groups of atoms that are electrically charged due to an imbalance in the number of electrons and protons; ions are represented by formulae which include the number of constituent atoms and the charge of the ion (for example, O2–, SO42–)
ACSCH032 11 Chemical fundamentals Properties and structure of materials The characteristic properties of metals (for example, malleability, thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity) are explained by modelling metallic bonding as a regular arrangement of positive ions (cations) made stable by electrostatic forces of attra
ACSCH036 11 Chemical fundamentals Chemical reactions All chemical reactions involve the creation of new substances and associated energy transformations, commonly observable as changes in the temperature of the surroundings and/or the emission of light
ACSCH037 11 Chemical fundamentals Chemical reactions Endothermic and exothermic reactions can be explained in terms of the Law of Conservation of Energy and the breaking and reforming of bonds; heat energy released or absorbed can be represented in thermochemical equations
ACSCH039 11 Chemical fundamentals Chemical reactions A mole is a precisely defined quantity of matter equal to Avogadro’s number of particles; the mole concept and the Law of Conservation of Mass can be used to calculate the mass of reactants and products in a chemical reaction
ACSCH056 11 Molecular interactions and reactions Intermolecular forces and gases The shapes of molecules can be explained and predicted using three­ dimensional representations of electrons as charge clouds and using valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory
ACSCH059 11 Molecular interactions and reactions Intermolecular forces and gases Data from chromatography techniques (for example, thin layer, gas and high­performance liquid chromatography) can be used to determine the composition and purity of substances; the separation of the components is caused by the variation of strength of the
ACSCH060 11 Molecular interactions and reactions Intermolecular forces and gases The behaviour of gases, including the qualitative relationships between pressure, temperature and volume, can be explained using kinetic theory
ACSCH061 11 Molecular interactions and reactions Aqueous solutions and acidity Water is a key substance in a range of chemical systems because of its unique properties, including its boiling point, density in solid and liquid phases, surface tension, and ability to act as a solvent
ACSCH063 11 Molecular interactions and reactions Aqueous solutions and acidity The concentration of a solution is defined as the amount of solute divided by the amount of solution; this can be represented in a variety of ways including by the number of moles of the solute per litre of solution (mol L­1) and the mass of the solute pe
ACSCH064 11 Molecular interactions and reactions Aqueous solutions and acidity The presence of specific ions in solutions can be identified using analytical techniques based on chemical reactions, including precipitation and acid­base reactions
ACSCH065 11 Molecular interactions and reactions Aqueous solutions and acidity The solubility of substances in water, including ionic and molecular substances, can be explained by the intermolecular forces between species in the substances and water molecules, and is affected by changes in temperature
ACSCH066 11 Molecular interactions and reactions Aqueous solutions and acidity The pH scale is used to compare the levels of acidity or alkalinity of aqueous solutions; the pH is dependent on the concentration of hydrogen ions in the solution
ACSCH068 11 Molecular interactions and reactions Rates of chemical reactions Varying the conditions present during chemical reactions can affect the rate of the reaction and in some cases the identity of the products
ACSCH069 11 Molecular interactions and reactions Rates of chemical reactions The rate of chemical reactions can be quantified by measuring the rate of formation of products or the depletion of reactants
ACSCH073 11 Molecular interactions and reactions Rates of chemical reactions Catalysts, including enzymes and metal nanoparticles, affect the rate of certain reactions by providing an alternative reaction pathway with a reduced activation energy, hence increasing the proportion of collisions that lead to a chemical change
ACSPH016 11 Thermal nuclear and electrical physics Heating processes Heat transfer occurs between and within systems by conduction, convection and/or radiation
ACSPH020 11 Thermal nuclear and electrical physics Heating processes Provided a substance does not change state, its temperature change is proportional to the amount of energy added to or removed from the substance; the constant of proportionality describes the heat capacity of the substance
ACSPH022 11 Thermal nuclear and electrical physics Heating processes Two systems in contact transfer energy between particles so that eventually the systems reach the same temperature; that is, they are in thermal equilibrium
ACSPH028 11 Thermal nuclear and electrical physics Ionising radiation and nuclear reactions Some nuclides are unstable and spontaneously decay, emitting alpha, beta and/or gamma radiation over time until they become stable nuclides
ACSPH029 11 Thermal nuclear and electrical physics Ionising radiation and nuclear reactions Each species of radionuclide has a specific half­life
ACSPH030 11 Thermal nuclear and electrical physics Ionising radiation and nuclear reactions Alpha, beta and gamma radiation have sufficient energy to ionise atoms
ACSPH039 11 Thermal nuclear and electrical physics Electrical circuits Energy is conserved in the energy transfers and transformations that occur in an electrical circuit
ACSPH040 11 Thermal nuclear and electrical physics Electrical circuits The energy available to charges moving in an electrical circuit is measured using electric potential difference, which is defined as the change in potential energy per unit charge between two defined points in the circuit
ACSPH041 11 Thermal nuclear and electrical physics Electrical circuits Energy is required to separate positive and negative charge carriers; charge separation produces an electrical potential difference that can be used to drive current in circuits
ACSPH042 11 Thermal nuclear and electrical physics Electrical circuits Power is the rate at which energy is transformed by a circuit component; power enables quantitative analysis of energy transformations in the circuit
ACSPH043 11 Thermal nuclear and electrical physics Electrical circuits Resistance for ohmic and non­ohmic components is defined as the ratio of potential difference across the component to the current in the component
ACSPH044 11 Thermal nuclear and electrical physics Electrical circuits Circuit analysis and design involve calculation of the potential difference across, the current in, and the power supplied to, components in series, parallel and series/parallel circuits
ACSPH060 11 Linear Motion and Waves Linear motion and force Uniformly accelerated motion is described in terms of relationships between measurable scalar and vector quantities, including displacement, speed, velocity and acceleration
ACSPH061 11 Linear Motion and Waves Linear motion and force Representations, including graphs and vectors, and/or equations of motion, can be used qualitatively and quantitatively to describe and predict linear motion
ACSPH062 11 Linear Motion and Waves Linear motion and force Vertical motion is analysed by assuming the acceleration due to gravity is constant near Earth’s surface
ACSPH063 11 Linear Motion and Waves Linear motion and force Newton’s Three Laws of Motion describe the relationship between the force or forces acting on an object, modelled as a point mass, and the motion of the object due to the application of the force or forces
ACSPH064 11 Linear Motion and Waves Linear motion and force Momentum is a property of moving objects; it is conserved in a closed system and may be transferred from one object to another when a force acts over a time interval
ACSPH065 11 Linear Motion and Waves Linear motion and force Energy is conserved in isolated systems and is transferred from one object to another when a force is applied over a distance; this causes work to be done and changes to kinetic and/or potential energy of objects
ACSPH066 11 Linear Motion and Waves Linear motion and force Collisions may be elastic and inelastic; kinetic energy is conserved in elastic collisions
ACSPH069 11 Linear Motion and Waves Waves Waves may be represented by time and displacement wave diagrams and described in terms of relationships between measurable quantities, including period, amplitude, wavelength, frequency and velocity
ACSPH072 11 Linear Motion and Waves Waves The superposition of waves in a medium may lead to the formation of standing waves and interference phenomena, including standing waves in pipes and on stretched strings
ACSPH073 11 Linear Motion and Waves Waves A mechanical system resonates when it is driven at one of its natural frequencies of oscillation; energy is transferred efficiently into systems under these conditions
ACSPH076 11 Linear Motion and Waves Waves A wave model explains a wide range of light­related phenomena including reflection, refraction, total internal reflection, dispersion, diffraction and interference; a transverse wave model is required to explain polarisation
ACSBL052 11 Biodiversity and the interconnectedness of life Ecosystem dynamics Photosynthesis is a biochemical process that in plant cells occurs in the chloroplast and that uses light energy to organic compounds; the overall process can be represented as a balanced chemical equation
ACSBL053 11 Biodiversity and the interconnectedness of life Ecosystem dynamics Cellular respiration is a biochemical process that occurs in different locations in the cytosol and mitochondria and metabolises organic compounds, aerobically or anaerobically, to release useable energy in the form of ATP; the overall process can be repr
ACSBL085 12 Heredity and continuity of life DNA genes and the continuity of life Frequencies of genotypes and phenotypes of offspring can be predicted using probability models, including Punnett squares, and by taking into consideration patterns of inheritance, including the effects of dominant, autosomal and sex-linked alleles and mu
ACSBL090 12 Heredity and continuity of life Continuity of life on Earth Natural selection occurs when selection pressures in the environment confer a selective advantage on a specific phenotype to enhance its survival and reproduction; this results in changes in allele frequency in the gene pool of a population
ACSBL091 12 Heredity and continuity of life Continuity of life on Earth In additional to environmental selection pressures, mutation, gene flow and genetic drift can contribute to changes in allele frequency in a population gene pool and results in microevolutionary change
ACSBL110 12 Maintaining the internal environment Homeostasis Homeostasis involves a stimulus response model in which change in external or internal environmental conditions is detected and appropriate responses occur via negative feedback; in vertebrates, receptors and effectors are linked via a control centre by n
ACSBL111 12 Maintaining the internal environment Homeostasis Changes in an organism’s metabolic activity, in addition to structural features and changes in physiological processes and behaviour, enable the organism to maintain its internal environment within tolerance limits
ACSBL115 12 Maintaining the internal environment Homeostasis Animals, whether osmo-regulators or osmo-conformers, and plants, have various mechanisms to maintain water balance that involve structural features, and behavioural, physiological and homeostatic responses
ACSBL117 12 Maintaining the internal environment Infectious disease Pathogens include prions, viruses, bacteria, fungi, protists and parasites
ACSBL118 12 Maintaining the internal environment Infectious disease Pathogens have adaptations that facilitate their entry into cells and tissues and their transmission between hosts; transmission occurs by various mechanisms including through direct contact, contact with body fluids, and via contaminated food, water or d
ACSCH091 12 Equilibrium acids and redox reactions Chemical equilibrium systems Over time, physical changes and reversible chemical reactions reach a state of dynamic equilibrium in a closed system, with the relative concentrations of products and reactants defining the position of equilibrium
ACSCH096 12 Equilibrium acids and redox reactions Chemical equilibrium systems Equilibrium position can be predicted qualitatively using equilibrium constants
ACSCH097 12 Equilibrium acids and redox reactions Chemical equilibrium systems Acids are substances that can act as proton (hydrogen ion) donors and can be classified as monoprotic or polyprotic depending on the number of protons donated by each molecule of the acid
ACSCH098 12 Equilibrium acids and redox reactions Chemical equilibrium systems The strength of acids is explained by the degree of ionisation at equilibrium in aqueous solution, which can be represented with chemical equations and equilibrium constants (Ka)
ACSCH099 12 Equilibrium acids and redox reactions Chemical equilibrium systems The relationship between acids and bases in equilibrium systems can be explained using the Brønsted­ Lowry model and represented using chemical equations that illustrate the transfer of hydrogen ions
ACSCH100 12 Equilibrium acids and redox reactions Chemical equilibrium systems The pH scale is a logarithmic scale and the pH of a solution can be calculated from the concentration of hydrogen ions; Kw can be used to calculate the concentration of hydrogen ions from the concentration of hydroxide ions in a solution
ACSCH101 12 Equilibrium acids and redox reactions Chemical equilibrium systems Acid­base indicators are weak acids or bases where the acidic form is of a different colour to the basic form
ACSCH102 12 Equilibrium acids and redox reactions Chemical equilibrium systems Volumetric analysis methods involving acid­base reactions rely on the identification of an equivalence point by measuring the associated change in pH, using chemical indicators or pH meters, to reveal an observable end point
ACSCH103 12 Equilibrium acids and redox reactions Oxidation and reduction A range of reactions, including displacement reactions of metals, combustion, corrosion, and electrochemical processes, can be modelled as redox reactions involving oxidation of one substance and reduction of another substance
ACSCH104 12 Equilibrium acids and redox reactions Oxidation and reduction Oxidation can be modelled as the loss of electrons from a chemical species, and reduction can be modelled as the gain of electrons by a chemical species; these processes can be represented using half­ equations
ACSCH106 12 Equilibrium acids and redox reactions Oxidation and reduction The relative strength of oxidising and reducing agents can be determined by comparing standard electrode potentials
ACSCH107 12 Equilibrium acids and redox reactions Oxidation and reduction Electrochemical cells, including galvanic and electrolytic cells, consist of oxidation and reduction half­ reactions connected via an external circuit that allows electrons to move from the anode (oxidation reaction) to the cathode (reduction reaction)
ACSCH108 12 Equilibrium acids and redox reactions Oxidation and reduction Galvanic cells, including fuel cells, generate an electrical potential difference from a spontaneous redox reaction; they can be represented as cell diagrams including anode and cathode half­equations
ACSCH110 12 Equilibrium acids and redox reactions Oxidation and reduction Cell potentials at standard conditions can be calculated from standard electrode potentials; these values can be used to compare cells constructed from different materials
ACSCH130 12 Structure synthesis and design Properties and structure of organic materials Data from analytical techniques, including mass spectrometry, x­ray crystallography and infrared spectroscopy, can be used to determine the structure of organic molecules, often using evidence from more than one technique
ACSCH131 12 Structure synthesis and design Chemical synthesis and design Chemical synthesis involves the selection of particular reagents to form a product with specific properties (for example, pharmaceuticals, fuels, cosmetics, cleaning products)
ACSCH132 12 Structure synthesis and design Chemical synthesis and design Designing chemical synthesis processes involves constructing reaction pathways that may include more than one chemical reaction
ACSCH133 12 Structure synthesis and design Chemical synthesis and design Designing chemical synthesis processes includes identifying reagents and reaction conditions in order to maximise yield and purity of product
ACSPH099 12 Gravity and electromagnetism Gravity and motion Projectile motion can be analysed quantitatively by treating the horizontal and vertical components of the motion independently
ACSPH102 12 Gravity and electromagnetism Electromagnetism Electrostatically charged objects exert a force upon one another; the magnitude of this force can be calculated using Coulomb’s Law
ACSPH106 12 Gravity and electromagnetism Electromagnetism Current­carrying wires are surrounded by magnetic fields; these fields are utilised in solenoids and electromagnets
ACSPH107 12 Gravity and electromagnetism Electromagnetism The strength of the magnetic field produced by a current is called the magnetic flux density
ACSPH110 12 Gravity and electromagnetism Electromagnetism A changing magnetic flux induces a potential difference; this process of electromagnetic induction is used in step­up and step­down transformers, DC and AC generators, and AC induction motors
ACSPH111 12 Gravity and electromagnetism Electromagnetism Conservation of energy, expressed as Lenz’s Law of electromagnetic induction, is used to determine the direction of induced current
ACSPH136 12 Revolutions in modern physics Quantum theory On the atomic level, electromagnetic radiation is emitted or absorbed in discrete packets called photons; the energy of a photon is proportional to its frequency; and the constant of proportionality, Planck’s constant, can be determined experimentally (fo
ACSPH137 12 Revolutions in modern physics Quantum theory A wide range of phenomena, including black body radiation and the photoelectric effect, are explained using the concept of light quanta
ACSPH138 12 Revolutions in modern physics Quantum theory Atoms of an element emit and absorb specific wavelengths of light that are unique to that element; this is the basis of spectral analysis
ACSPH139 12 Revolutions in modern physics Quantum theory The Bohr model of the hydrogen atom integrates light quanta and atomic energy states to explain the specific wavelengths in the hydrogen spectrum and in the spectra of other simple atoms; the Bohr model enables line spectra to be correlated with atomic en
ACSCH134 12 Structure synthesis and design Chemical synthesis and design The yield of a chemical synthesis reaction can be calculated by comparing stoichiometric quantities with actual quantities
ACSPH108 12 Gravity and electromagnetism Electromagnetism Magnets, magnetic materials, moving charges and current­carrying wires experience a force in a magnetic field; this force is utilised in DC electric motors
ACSSU030 2 Biological Sciences Life Cycles Living things grow, change and have offspring similar to themselves
ACSSU031 2 Chemical Sciences Materials Different materials can be combined, including by mixing, for a particular purpose
ACSSU032 2 Earth and Space Sciences Water Earth’s resources, including water, are used in a variety of ways
ACSSU033 2 Physical Sciences Forces and Moving A push or a pull affects how an object moves or changes shape
ACSSU044 3 Biological Sciences Living Things Living things can be grouped on the basis of observable features and can be distinguished from nonliving
ACSSU046 3 Chemical Sciences Solids Liquids Gases A change of state between solid and liquid can be caused by adding or removing heat
ACSSU048 3 Earth and Space Sciences Earth Moon Sun Earth’s rotation on its axis causes regular changes, including night and day
ACSSU049 3 Physical Sciences Heat Heat can be produced in many ways and can move from one object to another
ACSSU072 4 Physical Sciences Life Cycles Living things have life cycles
ACSSU073 4 Biological Sciences Animal Survival Living things, including plants and animals, depend on each other and the environment to survive
ACSSU074 4 Chemical Sciences Materials Natural and processed materials have a range of physical properties; These properties can influence their use
ACSSU075 4 Earth and Space Sciences Earth Changes Sudden geological changes or extreme weather conditions can affect Earth’s surface
ACSSU076 4 Physical Sciences Forces and Moving Forces can be exerted by one object on another through direct contact or from a distance
ACSSU043 5 Biological Sciences Adaptations Living things have structural features and adaptations that help them to survive in their environment
ACSSU077 5 Chemical Sciences Solids Liquids Gases Solids, liquids and gases have different observable properties and behave in different ways
ACSSU078 5 Earth and Space Sciences Earth Moon Sun The Earth is part of a system of planets orbiting around a star (the sun)
ACSSU080 5 Physical Sciences Light and Sound Light from a source forms shadows and can be absorbed, reflected and refracted
ACSSU094 6 Biological Sciences Adaptations The growth and survival of living things are affected by the physical conditions of their environment
ACSSU095 6 Chemical Sciences Chemical Changes Changes to materials can be reversible, such as melting, freezing, evaporating; or irreversible, such as burning and rusting
ACSSU096 6 Earth and Space Sciences Earth Changes Sudden geological changes or extreme weather conditions can affect Earth’s surface
ACSSU097 6 Physical Sciences Electrical Circuits Electrical energy can be transferred and transformed in electrical circuits and can be generated from a range of sources
ACSSU219 6 Physical Sciences Alternative Energies Energy from a variety of sources can be used to generate electricity
ACSSU111 7 Biological Sciences Classification Classification helps organise the diverse group of organisms
ACSSU112 7 Biological Sciences Food webs Interactions between organisms, including the effects of human activities can be represented by food chains and food webs
ACSSU113 7 Chemical Sciences Separating Mixtures Mixtures, including solutions, contain a combination of pure substances that can be separated using a range of techniques
ACSSU115 7 Earth and Space Sciences Earth Moon Sun Predictable phenomena on Earth, including seasons and eclipses, are caused by the relative positions of the sun, Earth and the moon
ACSSU116 7 Earth and Space Sciences Earth Resources Some of Earth’s resources are renewable, but others are non renewable
ACSSU117 7 Physical Sciences Forces and Machines Change to an object’s motion is caused by unbalanced forces, including Earth’s gravitational attraction, acting on the object
ACSSU149 8 Biological Sciences Cells Cells are the basic units of living things and have specialised structures and functions
ACSSU150 8 Biological Sciences Organ Systems Multi-cellular organisms contain systems of organs that carry out specialised functions that enable them to survive and reproduce
ACSSU151 8 Chemical Sciences Matter and Particles The properties of the different states of matter can be explained in terms of the motion and arrangement of particles
ACSSU152 8 Chemical Sciences Matter and Particles Differences between elements, compounds and mixtures can be described at a particle level
ACSSU153 8 Earth and Space Sciences Rocks and Minerals Sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks contain minerals and are formed by processes that occur within Earth over a variety of timescales
ACSSU155 8 Physical Sciences Energy Forms Energy appears in different forms, including movement (kinetic energy), heat and potential energy, and energy transformations and transfers cause change within systems
ACSSU225 8 Chemical Sciences Chemical Reactions Chemical change involves substances reacting to form new substances
ACSSU175 9 Biological Sciences Organ Systems Multi-cellular organisms rely on coordinated and interdependent internal systems to respond to changes to their environment
ACSSU176 9 Biological Sciences Ecology Ecosystems consist of communities of interdependent organisms and abiotic components of the environment; matter and energy flow through these systems
ACSSU177 9 Chemical Sciences Atomic Models All matter is made of atoms which are composed of protons, neutrons and electrons; natural radioactivity arises from the decay of nuclei in atoms
ACSSU178 9 Chemical Sciences Chemical Reactions Chemical reactions involve rearranging atoms to form new substances; during a chemical reaction mass is not created or destroyed
ACSSU179 9 Chemical Sciences Chemical Reactions Chemical reactions, including combustion and the reactions of acids, are important in both non-living and living systems and involve energy transfer
ACSSU180 9 Earth and Space Sciences Plate Tectonics The theory of plate tectonics explains global patterns of geological activity and continental movement
ACSSU182 9 Physical Sciences Energy Transfer Energy transfer through different mediums can be explained using wave and particle models